How to Study Effectively for School or College - Top 6 Science-Based Study Skills
In order to get a degreecandidateSciences candidate must prepare a qualifying scientific work on the chosen specialty (dissertation) and defend it in a special certification body - the Dissertation Council. Then, at the request of this council, an academic degree is awarded by the Higher Attestation Commission (HAC). The whole procedure of preparing and defending a master's thesis is strictly formalized and must comply with a specific algorithm.
Education in graduate school is a continuation of the educational process after obtaining a university diploma. For admission to graduate school, both full-time and part-time, an applicant must submit an application to the university post-graduate department and pass entrance exams in the chosen specialty, philosophy and foreign language. Full-time postgraduate education lasts 3 years, in the correspondence course of 5 years. During this period, a graduate student attends classes in a foreign language and philosophy to prepare for passing candidate exams, the so-called candidate minimum, and seminars in the main specialty.
At the same time, the young specialist should, under the guidance of the scientific adviser, choose the topic of the dissertation research and start working on it. The graduate student should submit the completed handwritten version of the dissertation to the department by the time of graduation in graduate school. This form of training is most suitable for young university graduates who do not yet have serious professional experience and need guidance and assistance from senior colleagues.
Competition is a freer form of preparation for a degree. It does not imply a permanent presence in the university or school. The applicant is attached to the profile department in his specialty. The academic council of the university approves the chosen topic of the dissertation work and the supervisor. The applicant is independently engaged in preparing for the delivery of candidate exams and writing a thesis. The application does not imply strict time limits on the preparation - the timing of the exams and the provision of dissertation research is chosen by the applicant.
Regardless of the chosen form of training (postgraduate study or competition),An applicant for a candidate's degree must, before defending a thesis, publish in scientific journals a number of articles on the subject under study or one monograph. Moreover, only those articles that are published in the list of publications approved by the Higher Attestation Commission are taken into account. The list of scientific papers is attached to the set of documents required for the dissertation by the dissertation council.
- How to get a degree
- Candidate of Law
Tip 2: How to get a degree
In Russia, there are two degrees: PhD and Doctor of Science. Between them can run a time interval of 5-25 years. But in order to become a candidate, you need to decide on the route by which the intellectual private will receive the first "star" of an officer of mental labor.
Select the topic of work and supervisor. The relevance and novelty of the work are the basic criteria of the thesis. However, the level of many scientific studies leaves much to be desired, which is noted in the annual reports of the Higher Certification Commission - the Higher Attestation Commission. In order to navigate in the work of colleagues, it is worth referring to the Electronic Library of dissertations -http://diss.rsl.ru/. Residents of the regions will be especially useful section "Virtual reading rooms." These are the libraries that have access to the database.
There are four tactics for obtaining a scientific degree. To become a candidate of science, you can choose to study in full-time graduate school, or in correspondence. This is the way for recent students or university staff. In any case, this format involves the constant assistance of a supervisor, classes in philosophy and a foreign language (the so-called candidate minimum). There are such forms as competition and self-training. The applicant may appear in the university raids. Self-preparation is a rarity rather than a rule. This option should be borne in mind, but it is desirable to focus on the first three. The postgraduate study involves entrance exams, and the application is going through some bureaucratic procedures. And graduate school, and the competition may be paid. The amount depends on the institution of higher education.
The following years imply practical and theoretical work, writing scientific articles and publishing them in VAK journals (this is a list of scientific publications approved by the Higher Attestation Commission).Graduate students take the candidate minimum - philosophy, foreign language and specialty. But the most important thing is the dissertation. After it is written (and this is a scientific work from 100 to 350 printed pages), you need to squeeze the abstract from it - a report that will be heard by the dissertation council on defense.
When the candidate minimums are handed over, the package of articles is ready, the practical part of the research work has been carried out, and the dissertation with the abstract has been written, the graduate student or the applicant enters the defense phase. It is necessary to find a dissertation council (usually the supervisor is well-versed in this matter). For doctors of science there are special dissertation councils (doctoral councils), which are authorized to write petitions in the Higher Attestation Commission with the request to award a PhD degree to the candidate of science.
Graduate students, full-time and part-time students, write reports on the work done every year. For full-time students the dissertation should be ready in three years. For part-time students - after four. Competitiveness implies a deadline of ten years.
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