SWORD names / classification / terminology

Where the name "sword kladenets"

Etymology is an amazing science that makes it possible to quickly and easily determine the origin of a word on the basis of comparative historical linguistics. However, scientists believe that amateurs often interfere in its laws and try to establish connections according to their own understanding. Even specialists who have studied the changes in the morphology of a word sometimes find it difficult to establish a semantic component, and even ignorant of this matter even more so. From here and all sorts of myths are born.

Versions of folk etymology

However, any of the versions has the right to life. The most frequently encountered is the comparison of the word “kladenets” with the verb “to put” or the treasure. The first arose from the association with the power of the sword, which puts (chops) the heads of enemies to the left and to the right.
The version about the treasure has several explanations:
- a sword decorated with precious stones, but in Russia jewels were not called a treasure, and there were no decorations on it;
- the sword, in the steel which was added any impurities;
- the sword itself is so rare that to possess it is tantamount to treasure, because they did not know the quality steel weapons in Russia.
But all these options, scientists believe nothing more than an etymology, invented by the people. Although the version with additives in steel is considered close to the truth. Accepted by science and the fact that the steel billet for the sword previously fit blacksmith in the ground. But this is just evidence of the fact that Russian blacksmiths were able to make weapons of a special quality.
To make a sword quadenary, the craftsman took steel rods of different strength and twisted them together. Then the billet was stretched and flattened, and then twisted several more times. When the master believed that he had made a sufficient number of twists, the future sword plunged into the soil with a special composition.
Laying the sword was a real ritual, and a hill with a boulder was erected on the surface of the earth. According to various sources, the blank for the sword could be stored in the ground from 5 years to a hundred, after which the sword was subjected to final forging.

As evidenced by the old Russian dictionary

If you refer to the Old Russian dictionary, you can find a translation of the word "way" - steel.A "stacked" - respectively steel. Not only the warrior’s sword, but also a large steel knife for carving cattle, was called the “Kladenets” in Russia. Some linguistic experts try to find a connection between the appearance of this word in Old Russian from other languages. So, there is some consonance with the Old Irish claided and with the Latin gladius, but these versions are quite controversial.
Experts are sure that in Russia there were blacksmiths-gunsmiths who owned the technology of making special, durable swords from welding damask. To do this, alternating the laying of steel on iron several times, and then forged, repeatedly twisting. If, after roasting, some pieces of steel broke off, then the master put them in a special way and did the forging operation again and again. It took a lot of time and effort, but the sword quadenier was excellent.

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